Thursday, 2 May 2013


What is an acid?
An acid is a substance that releases hydrogen when dissolved in water. Acids are also known as the opposite of bases. They're also common substances found/used in daily everyone's daily life. They can be found in soft drinks, vinegar and fruits. 

What is the general pH in Lemon Juice?
The general pH in lemon juice, is around 2. This makes lemon juice highly acidic. These fruits are classified as acidic because they contain acids the body can't metabolize.

This pH chart shows where lemon juice pH level is.


What is a base?
A base is a neutralizer. It's the opposite of acids; and they're very slippery and soapy. Bases are very good cleaners and they brush away decay. Some bases are commonly found in your daily cleaning products. A few bases are strong and dangerous. Bases are also the reason toothpaste is bubbly in your mouth, when mixed with water.

What is the general pH in Toothpaste?
The general pH in toothpaste is around a 9. This makes toothpaste slightly basic on the pH chart.

This pH chart, shows the different items and their approximate pH levels.

Discovery of Lemon Juice and Toothpaste

Discovery of Lemon Juice.
Seeing as lemon juice is a citric acid, it was discovered around the 8th century. In 1784 a Sweedish Chemist, known as Carl Wilhelm Sheele crystallized citric acid to form lemon juice. Industrial citric acid production, had began in 1890 based on Italian citrus fruit industry.

Present Use For Lemon Juice
Nowadays, lemon juice can be used in cooking and for healing.

Discovery of Toothpaste.
The discovery of toothpaste was before the discovery of toothbrushes. The Greeks and Romans, improved recipes for the different kinds of toothpastes by adding abrasives such as crushed bones and oyster shells. It's still unknown to whether early toothpastes were used alone, were rubbed onto the teeth with rags, or were used with early toothbrushes; such as twigs.

Present Uses For Toothpaste.
Nowadays, toothpaste is still used to brush your teeth. The way it's used is being placed on a toothbrush and  run under some water and then you brush your teeth. It helps brush away all the plaque on your teeth.

Toothpaste and Lemon Juice Uses

Examples of products/things or uses Toothpaste and Lemon Juice have.

1. Relieve irritation from bug bites, sores and blisters.

2. Sooth stings or burns.
3. Clear skin.
4. Cleans baby bottles.
5. Helps with shiny nails.
6. Removes scratches from compact discs.
7. Cleans pianos.
8. Removes crayon off the walls

Lemon Juice.
1. Remove fruit or berry stains from your hands.
2. Removes ink spots on clothing.
3. Helps dry up blemishes faster.
4. Bleach and soften grubby elbows.
5. Helps smooth aluminium.
6. Freshen up un-necessary odors. 
7. Helps dean brass and copper items.
8. Great use for cooking.


What is neutralization?
Neutralization is a reaction where an acid and a base cancel each other out to form a salt and water. With strong acids and bases, the essential reaction is the combination of hydrogen ions with hydroxylions to form water. Neutralization can be seen in our daily life; our stomach becomes acidic everyday.


What is pH?
pH is a chart measured on a scale from 0-14. With 7 being half of 14, that is considered neutral. Anything below 7, would be an acid and anything greater than 7 would be defined as a base.

What are some examples of pH indicators?

Red Cabbage Indicator, would be known as a natural indicator. When boiled, it can be used to determine acids, basics or neutral items/products. 

Litmus Paper is another indicator and is known as a synthetic indicator. This also helps determine acids, basics and neutral items/products.

Explain the process of how to measure the pH of the acid or base using indicators.
1. Collect a spotting tile
2. Place drops of the different acid/base on the spotting tile
3. Place 1-2 drops of the natural indicator on the acid/base
4. Observe the colour change
5. Estimate/check the pH range of the acid or base
6. Record results


1. Place a drop of acid or base on the end of litmus paper
2. Observe the colour change
3. Estimate/check the pH range of the acid or base
4. Record results

Explain how pH is relevant in our life.
pH is relevant in everyone's life because it's used in our everyday lives. Our body liquids range in pH, even in our stomach. Our stomach is protected by mucus to help stop the highly acidic acids in our stomach.

I use lemon juice when I help my Mum cook and bake. I also use toothpaste to brush my teeth, otherwise my teeth would be rotten because toothpaste helps clean teeth.


Websites/Resources Used.

Acids & Bases Powerpoint